Safeguarding

Safeguarding Children, Young People and Vulnerable Adults:

Agreed at PCC meeting on 8 May 2017

Policy and Procedure

“Every person has a value and dignity which comes directly from the creation of male and female in God’s own image and likeness. Christians see this potential as fulfilled by God’s re-creation of us in Christ. Among other things this implies a duty to value all people as bearing the image of God and therefore to protect them from harm” Diocese of Bristol 2014

Contents:

1.    Policy Context

2.    Policy statement

3.    Who is a child, young person, adult who may be vulnerable?

4.    What is abuse and neglect?

5.    What to do if you are concerned that abuse or neglect may be happening (Including allegations against people in a position of trust and ministering to those that may pose a risk)

6.    Confidentiality and Consent

7.    Record Keeping

8.    Safer Recruitment

9.    Roles and Responsibilities

10.  Staffing levels

11.  Premises

12.  Health and Safety

13.  Photographs and Videos

14.   Communication and social media

15.   Hire of the Hall

16.  Policy implementation and review

Appendix 1) Contact Numbers

Appendix 2) Categories of Abuse and Useful Information

1. Policy Context

In developing this policy St Anne’s Church commits to following the safeguarding policies of the Church of England, safeguarding policy and guidance as issued by the Diocese of Bristol and commits to working within legislation and statutory guidance as related to the Safeguarding of Children, Young People and Adults.

These main relevant polices and guidance documents are:

Church of England:

Protecting all God’s Children 2010

Promoting a Safe Church 2006

Safer Recruitment 2015

Responding to Domestic Abuse 2010

Responding Well 2012

Risk Assessment 2015

Practice Guidance Safeguarding Records 2015

Safeguarding Records Retention Tool Kit 2015

General Statement on Safeguarding Children In Towers Dec 2015

Diocese of Bristol:

Safeguarding Policy

Allegations Management Procedure

Ministering to those who may present a risk

These documents can all be found on the Diocese of Bristol website: www.bristol.anglican.org/parish-resources/safeguarding/policies-and-procedures And descriptions are given where these policies are referenced in this policy document.

Statutory Guidance:

Working Together 2015 : This guidance from the Department of Education describes safeguarding processes and the safeguards that every organisation must have in place, including faith organisations. See the guidance at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/working-together-to-safeguard-children--2

Care and Support Statutory Guidance 2016  This guidance from the Department of Health describes safeguarding processes for adults and the responsibilities of different organisationshttps://www.gov.uk/guidance/care-and-support-statutory-guidance

2. Policy Statement

It is the responsibility of all members of St Anne’s Church to give paramount importance to the nurture and care of children, young people and vulnerable adults in a safe and secure environment. It is about preventing harm to children and adults wherever possible.

We recognise that:

·    The welfare of the child, young person or vulnerable adult is paramount.

·    Everyone has different levels of vulnerability and each of us may be regarded as vulnerable at some time in our lives

·    All children, young people and adults who may be vulnerable (regardless of age, disability, gender, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy, maternity, race, religion or belief, sex or sexual orientation) have the right to equal protection from all types of harm or abuse which can occur in all families and communities.

·    Working in partnership with children, young people, vulnerable adults and their parents, carers and other agencies is essential in promoting their welfare.

We will develop a culture in our church that:

·    Enables a safe and caring community to provide a loving environment where there is a culture of ‘informed vigilance’ as to the dangers of abuse.

·    Enables and encourages concerns to be raised and responded to openly and consistently and protects children, young people and adults who may be vulnerable from actual or potential harm.

·    Ensures all people feel welcomed, respected and safe from abuse.

·    Values, listens to and respects children, young people and adults who may be vulnerable, encouraging them to be active contributors to the church community.

·    Encourages adults who may be vulnerable to lead as independent a life as possible.

When concerns are raised we will:

·    Respond without delay to every concern raised that a child, young person or vulnerable adult may have been harmed, or may be at risk of harm, through abuse or neglect.

·    Work with police, local authority and other partners in any investigation, including where allegations are made against a member of the Church community.

·    Challenge any abuse of power, especially by anyone in a position of trust.

If abuse has occurred we will ensure:

·    Informed and appropriate pastoral care is offered to any child, young person or adult who has suffered abuse, including support to make a complaint if so desired.

·    Supervision is provided for any member of the Church Community known to pose a risk of harm to others.

·    Appropriate pastoral care is provided to any member of our church against whom an allegation is made.

In all recruitment we will:

·    Carefully select those with any responsibility within the Church (including voluntary workers) in line with the Church of England Safer Recruitment Practice Guidance 2015  and aim to provide ongoing supervision, support and training.

In our publicity we will:

·    Identify who the safeguarding officers are and where to find out further information about  safeguarding practices with children, young people and vulnerable adults, their parents, carers and all those working and worshipping with them.

3. Who is a child, young person, adult who may be vulnerable?

Children and young people: for the purposes of this policy means anyone under the age of 18 years.  Children and young people may potentially be abused by any other person known or unknown to them. Abuse could be direct or via electronic media. (See the appropriate policy relating to safe use of social media and web sites.

Where conflicts of interest arise between the welfare of the child and that of adults, the child’s wellbeing must always be of paramount importance and priority.

Adults who may be vulnerable: The Care Act 2014 defines an adult to whom statutory safeguarding duties apply as an adult who:

Has needs for care and support (whether or not the Local Authority is meeting any of these needs)

Is experiencing, or at risk of abuse or neglect

As a result of those care and support needs is unable to protect themselves from either the risk of or the experience of abuse or neglect.

(Care and Support Statutory Guidance 2016)

The definition may apply to anyone over the age of 18 who may not be able to protect themselves from abuse, harm or exploitation, which may be by reason of illness, physical,

sensory or learning disability or impairment, mental illness, use of drugs or alcohol. Increased vulnerability may be temporary or permanent and may be visible or invisible.

An adult may potentially be abused or neglected by any other person including family , friends, carers, strangers and professionals. Those at risk may live alone or may live with family or in a care setting e.g. residential home.

4. Understanding what constitutes abuse or neglect?

The Bristol diocese policy and on inline information describes and outlines the forms of abuse noted in legislation related to safeguarding children, young people and adults alongside some examples and potential indicators that abuse or neglect may be occurring.

5. What to do if you are concerned that abuse or neglect may be happening

You may see or hear something of concern or someone may tell you something of concern (a disclosure).  If a child, young person or adult tells you that they have experienced abuse, are experiencing abuse or are concerned that they may be at risk:

Do

Don’t

Listen. Try to move to a quiet space if possible

Tell them to speak to someone else

Let the person talk at their own pace and say what they want to say. If you need to clarify points ask open questions like:

Tell me.. what happened,

Explain … about the incident

Describe …where it was , what happened

Investigate.

Ask leading questions e.g. why did they do that, was it ‘name’, did it hurt you?

Take it seriously

Try not to react as though unbelieving or shocked

Reassure. Confirm they are doing the right thing by telling you.

Tell them not to tell stories

Tell them you need to share the concern with the right people e.g. Parish Safeguarding Officer, police, social care

Promise to keep a secret or tell people who don’t need to know.

Record what was said and the facts as accurately as possible as soon as possible

Try to just remember it

 

Contact the person the allegation is about

Whether a child, young person or adult has shared a concern with you or you have seen or heard something of concern…

If the situation is urgent i.e. there is an imminent risk of harm: contact the police on 101 or 999 as appropriate or contact the Local Authority Children or Adults safeguarding Teams:

South Gloucestershire Adult’s Safeguarding Team

          Concerned about an adult?

01454 868007 ‐ Monday to Friday 9am ‐ 5pm

01454 615165 ‐ Out of hours and at weekends

In an emergency please ring 999

South Gloucestershire Children’s  Safeguarding Team

          Concerned about a child?

01454 866000 ‐ Monday to Friday 9am ‐ 5pm

01454 615165 ‐ Out of hours and at weekends

In an emergency please ring 999

Once you have sought advice from police or the Local Authority and the situation is made safe, inform the Parish Safeguarding Officer as soon as possible of the concern and actions taken, provide a written record of this. If the concern is about the Parish Safeguarding Officer contact the Incumbent or Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser.

If the situation is of concern but is not urgent: Contact the Parish Safeguarding Officer to report the concern and provide a written record (if the concern is about the Parish Safeguarding Officer contact the Incumbent or Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser). They will decide with you whether to discuss with the child, their parents or carers or the adult and any carers and whether a referral to the Local Authority Children or Adults Safeguarding Team is needed or any other action.

Note: Anyone can report a concern directly to police or the Local Authority at anytime.

If there is an allegation that a person in a position of trust (minister, PCC member, staff member or volunteer) has abused or neglected a child or adult or that such a person may present a risk to a child or adult: The Diocese of Bristol ‘Allegations Management Procedure’ will be followed (copies of this procedure can be found on the Diocesan website

In brief this procedure requires that:

·  The concern should be reported as above; report should reach police and Local Authority within 1 working day.

·   The concern should not be made known to the person against whom the allegation is raised without agreement with police and or the Local Authority.

·   Next steps will be decided in conjunction with police, Local Authority representatives (including Local Authority Designated Officer where there is a concern for the welfare of a child), the Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser and parish representatives (usually PSO, Incumbent and Churchwardens).

If a person is identified who has a caution or conviction for abuse of children and or adults who may pose a risk to others: (usually those with convictions for sexual or violent offences) the Diocese of Bristol guidance ‘Ministering to those who may pose a risk’ (Copies of this guidance can be found on the Diocesan website will be followed. In brief this guidance advises that that Parish Safeguarding Officer and Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser are made aware and that the individual is informed that:

·   To support their being part of the congregation as safely as possible, contact will be made with police, probation and other agencies connected with their case.

·    The Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser and Church leaders will need to know of their circumstances.

·    That a risk assessment will need to be completed

·    And that a written agreement will be needed between the individual and the Church which agrees when the individual will or will not be involved in church services and activities, boundaries of behaviour and support offered.

6. Confidentiality and consent

Confidentiality: St Anne’s Church accepts the principle that only those with a need to know should be made aware of safeguarding concerns or other confidential information. All staff, ministers and volunteers are expected to share confidential information appropriately and to ensure that written records and verbal information is shared responsibly and stored securely.

Consent: St Anne’s Church accepts that all people have a right to make their own views and wishes known in relation to safeguarding issues and that these wishes should be followed wherever possible as long as these wishes do not jeopardise others rights to appropriate confidentiality.

Children: Where there is a concern that a child is experiencing or at risk of abuse or neglect St Anne’s Church accepts that;

We cannot promise not to tell anyone or to keep secrets; these concerns must be reported to the appropriate authorities to enable the child or young person to receive appropriate help and support.

Ensures that parents and carers will be communicated with and will have their consent sought for information to be shared with the Local Authority or other agencies. This should happen except where there is concern that to do so would place a child at increased risk or where a parent or carer may be involved in the sexual abuse of the child. In those circumstances advice of the Local Authority or police should be sought before informing the parents or carers of the concern. 

Where the allegation is against an individual who may have access to other children or vulnerable adults the referral should be made without seeking consent from parents or carers - how they are made aware of the concerns will be decided alongside statutory agencies.

Adults: Adults have the right to make their own decisions about their lives. Consent should be sought from an adult before information is shared about them. However, where an adult withholds consent for a safeguarding concern to be shared with statutory authorities (police and local authority), this should be accepted except where there may be others at risk (e.g. is the abuse or neglect is happening in a care home or hospital or the abuser has access to other vulnerable adults or children) or where there is reason to doubt that the individual has capacity to make that decision or where there is imminent risk of serious harm. Advice should be sought from statutory services (Adult social care or police) or the Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser where there is any doubt as to whether a concern should be referred.

7. Record Keeping

Records of all safeguarding concerns will be kept by the Parish Safeguarding Officers. They will keep a record of the initial concern and all actions taken. The records will be securely held by the Parish Safeguarding Officer in password protected files or locked cabinet’s as agreed by the PCC.   All those involved with any safeguarding concern must ensure that they provide to the Safeguarding Officer any records related to that case for secure storage.

Records will be retained as per Church of England guidance ‘Safeguarding Records: Joint Practice Guidance for the Church of England and the Methodist Church’ 2015 (Available on the Diocese of Bristol website).

St Annes Church does not have access to secure email systems. Therefore confidential information should not be emailed unless anonomised or password protected.

Records must be maintained of staff and volunteer training and DBS checks. These will be maintained by the Parish Safeguarding Officer.

8. Safer Recruitment and ongoing support and supervision

All recruitment of staff and volunteers will be undertaken in line with Church of England policy ‘Safer Recruitment’ 2015.

Recruitment of staff and volunteers will only be undertaken by those delegated such responsibility from PCC.

Recruitment of staff and volunteers will only be undertaken according to agreed process.

All recruited staff and volunteers will be made known to PCC.

No one who has not been safely recruited will be permitted to work unsupervised with children, young people or adults who may be vulnerable.

In brief: All staff and volunteers will:

·   Have all recruitment checks completed and approved prior to starting in role.

·   All eligible staff and volunteers will have a repeat DBS disclosure every 5 years. Any lapsed DBS check will require the post holder to stand down until the check has been completed.

·   Attend safeguarding training as required by the Church of England

·   Attend any other training as decided by the PCC

9. Roles and Responsibilities

Name

Responsibilities

Parochial Church Council

·         Agree, implement, monitor and review annually  this safeguarding policy and all associated policies

·         Ensure all staff and volunteers are recruited safely

·         Agree and implement supporting good practice guidance and processes

·         Ensure adequate insurance for all activities

·         Recruit and support adequate Parish Safeguarding Officers

·         Ensure all staff and volunteers are adequately trained and supervised

Parish Safeguarding Officer (PSO)

·      Respond to all safeguarding allegations and concerns according to policy and guidance

·      Monitor and report to PCC regarding adherence to policy and practice

·      Arrange safeguarding training and maintain records

·      Process DBS disclosures for the church and maintain records 

Incumbent

·      Act as a point of contact should there be any safeguarding allegation or concern regarding a PSO

Church Wardens

·      Take part in the allegations management procedure when required

·      Take part in an ‘agreement’ as per ‘ministering to those that may present a risk’

Activity Leaders

·      Follow the Safeguarding policy and associated good practice guidance

·      Ensure that activities are run according to good practice guidance

·      Report any safeguarding concerns as per policy

·      Ensure all volunteers are safely recruited

·      Ensure all volunteers have in date training and DBS check as required

·      Ensure all new volunteers receive agreed induction

·      Supervise agreed volunteers

Staff and Volunteers

·      Follow the safeguarding policy and associated good practice guidance

·      Report any safeguarding concern as per policy

Church members

·      Be aware of the safeguarding and associated policies

·      Report any concerns as per policy

 

10. Staffing Levels

The leaders and helpers to child/teenager ratio outlined within the 1989 Children Act will be observed and whenever possible there will be at least a minimum of two adults present for groups regardless of the size of the group. For mixed groups there will, whenever possible, be at least one male and at least one female adult.  Adults will minimise time spent alone with any individual child.

11. Premises

All premises used will be clean, having adequate space, heating, lighting and ventilation. Outdoor play space will be available for activities exceeding 4 hours. Drinks will be available and all food preparation and eating arrangements will comply with the appropriate hygiene regulations. Adequate toilet facilities will be provided. Provision will be made for dietary and other special needs. All groups and activities will be covered by adequate liability insurance.

12. Health & Safety

A telephone will be available during all activities. Leaders will be aware of any fire and safety procedures and are not permitted to smoke whilst caring for children or on church premises. Children or leaders with infectious illness must not attend activities

Accidents and any consequent action taken will be recorded in the accident book. A first aid kit will be available and no medication will be administered without written parental consent. Parental contact information any other relevant information (e.g. asthma, allergies etc.) will be held securely but easily accessible by staff and volunteers. A register will be kept in case of emergency, which can be found in the Orchard Room Office.

All activities should adhere to St Anne’s Health and Safety Policy

13. Photographs and videos:

It is the policy of St Anne’s Church that no one should take photographs of children or young people without the written consent of that child’s parent or carer and the consent of that child where they are old enough to give consent.

Where photographs are to be taken consent will be gained from parents and carers in advance, using the agreed form. This will stipulate: who will take photos, for what purpose they may be used, how they will be stored and after what period they will be destroyed.

All photos and videos taken for the use of St Anne’s Church should be stored securely on devices and only shared with consent from those in the pictures. No photo or video should be left stored on personal devices.

No photo will be taken, shared or used for any purpose which shows a child in any state of undress.

Children will not be named in publicity related to photographs or video.

Where an event may be photographed on behalf of the church to be used to share with the church and or local community; signs will be displayed noting that photographs and or video may be taken and inviting anyone not wishing to be in any photos or video used to make this known to a named person. The photographer/ videographer in these circumstances will be named on these signs and will wear ID. 

Only those delegated with this responsibility by the PCC or who have agreed responsibilities with children or young people may ask for parental consent and arrange the taking of any photo or video.

14. Communications and Social Media:

St Anne’s Church has a Digital communications policy which lays out guidance for use of digital communications including social media with young people.

15. Hire of Church premises for non Church events and activities

Organisations and individual users meeting in the Orchard Rooms or on St Anne’s Church premises will be expected to adhere to this safeguarding policy or to have their own appropriate safeguarding policy.

St Anne’s Church ensures that the agreed hire process and forms are in use. This will include obtaining a copy of the hirers safeguarding policy where relevant and providing a copy of this policy. This policy is downloadable from St Anne’s Church Website.

16. Policy implementation and Review

This policy is agreed by the Parish PCC on 8 May 2017

All staff, volunteers and ministers are required to abide by this policy and associated good practice guidance.

This policy will be made available on the Church website, a copy will be available in each church.

This policy will be monitored via annual audit and annual report to PCC

This policy is to be reviewed annually.

Next Review Due:  January 2018

 

Appendix 1: Useful Contact numbers

Our Parish Safeguarding Officer are:

·  For children and young people; Karen Wilmot  0117 9080391

·  For vulnerable adults; Jan Parry 0117 9325456

·  Our Diocesan Safeguarding Adviser can be contacted on 0117 906 0100.

·  If advice is needed on a safeguarding issue and the PSO or DSA are not available, the Churches Child Protection Advisory Service (CCPAS) provide a helpline that can be contacted on 0845 120 4550. Please state that you are calling from a Diocese of Bristol church and contact your PSO as soon as possible to report that you sought advice from CCPAS and action taken.

 

South Gloucestershire Children’s Safeguarding Team

          Concerned about a child?

01454 866000 ‐ Monday to Friday 9am ‐ 5pm

01454 615165 ‐ Out of hours and at weekends

In an emergency please ring 999

South Gloucestershire Adult’s Safeguarding Team

          Concerned about an adult?

01454 868007 ‐ Monday to Friday 9am ‐ 5pm

01454 615165 ‐ Out of hours and at weekends

In an emergency please ring 999

Police: 999 (emergency) or 101 (non emergency)

 

Appendix 2: Categories of Abuse and additional information

Categories, Definitions and Indicators of Harm  Last Updated July 2011 V3

Type Of Harm

Definition

Examples

Indicators

Physical

 

Adults and Children

Non-accidental harm to the body. From careless rough handling to direct physical violence.

Unlawful or inappropriate use of restraint or physical interventions.

Hitting, slapping, pinching, shaking, pushing, scalding, burning, dragging, kicking, physical restraint, locking an individual in a room or a car.

History of unexplained falls or minor injuries, bruising which is characteristic of non-accidental injury – hand slap marks, pinch marks, grip marks, bite marks, scalds, flinching, reluctant to undress.

Sexual

 

Adults and Children

 

 

Direct or indirect involvement in sexual activity without capacity and/or consent. Individual did not fully understand or was pressured into consenting.

 

Note: A child under 16 years old can never consent to any sexual act

Coercion to be involved in the making or watching of pornographic material.  Coercion to touch e.g. of breasts, genitals, anus, mouth, masturbation of either self or others, penetration or attempted penetration of vagina, anus, mouth with or by penis, fingers and or other objects

Pregnancy in a women unable to give consent, difficulty in walking or sitting with no apparent explanation, torn, stained or bloody underclothes or bedding, Bleeding, bruising to the rectal and/or vaginal area, bruising. Behavioural changes, sexually explicit behaviour, explicit language, self harm, obsession with washing, fear of pregnancy may be exaggerated

Emotional

 

Adults and Children

Behaviour which has a harmful effect on an individual’s emotional well being or development, causing mental distress undermining their self-esteem and affecting individual’s quality of life.

Wilful infliction of mental suffering by a person in a position of trust and power.

Shouting, coercion, bullying, blaming, insulting, ignoring, threats of harm or abandonment, intimidation, harassment, humiliation, depriving an individual of the right to choice and their privacy, dignity, self -expression, deprivation of contact, undermining self-esteem, isolation and over-dependence. Failure to provide a loving environment for a child.

Loss of interest, withdrawn, anxious or depressed, frightened, avoiding eye contact, irritable, aggressive or challenging behaviour, unexplained sleep disturbance, self harm, refusing to eat, deliberate soiling, unusual weight gain or loss

 

Neglect

 

Adults and Children

Failure of any person who has responsibility for the charge, care or custody of an adult at risk or child to provide the amount and type of care or treatment that a responsible person could be expected to provide.

Fail to meet basic needs including food, environment, access to health care and education, failure to provide for social needs.

Unwashed/ dirty appearance, clothes too small/big, untreated sores or infections, isolation.

Financial

 

Adults

The unauthorised taking (theft), deprivation or misuse of any money, income, assets, funds, personal belongings or property or any resources of an adult at risk without their informed consent or authorisation.

Misuse of power of attorney or appointeeship. Money and possessions stolen, misuse or misappropriating money, valuables or property, possessions or benefits, undue pressure in connection with wills, property, inheritance or financial transactions, denying the adult at risk the right to access funds, unauthorised disposal of property or possessions, being asked to part with money on false pretences,

Unexplained or sudden inability to pay bills, Power of Attorney obtained and misused when a person lacks or does not lack mental capacity to understand, unexplained withdrawal of money with no benefits, person lacking goods or services that they can afford, extortionate demands for payments for services

Organisational

Adults

Involves the collective failure of an organisation to provide safe, appropriate and acceptable standards of service to adults at risk.

 

Mainly relates to health and social care provision but aspects may be relevant to Church settings

Lack of individualised care, inappropriate confinement or restriction, sensory deprivation, inappropriate use of rules, custom and practice

 

Whistle blowing policy not in place and accessible, insufficient employees training and development. Organisational standards not meeting those laid down by regulatory bodies, service users not treated with dignity and respect, diverse needs not recognized and valued in terms of age, gender, disability, ethnic origin, race or sexual orientation, services not flexible

 

 

Discriminatory

Adults

Exists when values, beliefs or culture result in a misuse of power that denies opportunity to some groups or individuals.

Verbal abuse, harassment or similar

treatment, unequal treatment, deliberate exclusion from services such as education, health, justice and access to services and protection, harmful or derisive attitudes, inappropriate use of language

Repeated exclusion from rights afforded to citizens such as health, education, employment and criminal justice

Modern Slavery

Encompasses slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and domestic servitude. Traffickers and slave masters use whatever means they have at their disposal to coerce, deceive and force individuals into a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment.

 

Adult or Child trafficked into UK or between places in UK for purpose of sexual abuse or labour.

Adult or Child forced to work as domestic servant.

Adult or child forced to work as sex worker, farm labourer, car cleaner.

Individual may not have their passport or Identity documents. They may not have access to or contact with friends and family.

May never be left alone, live in poor conditions, not be able to leave of own free will. May have no access to funds. May not know where they are or who they are with.

Self Neglect

A wide range of behaviour involving neglecting to care for one’s personal hygiene, health or surroundings and includes behaviour such as hoarding.

 

May not react to or appropriately  fulfil needs for health care, food, warmth. May live in an environment that is an environmental or fire risk and not take any measure to reduce risk or inadequate measures.

Environment which is poorly maintained, dirty, animal infested, cramped to the degree that it places the individuals wellbeing at risk.

May have untreated or inadequately treated physical health issues.

 

 

Domestic Abuse

 

 

In 2013, the Home Office announced changes to the definition of domestic abuse:

Incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse by someone who is or has been an intimate partner or family member regardless of gender or sexuality. Age range 16+

•       Includes: psychological, physical, sexual, financial, emotional abuse; so called ‘honour’ based violence; Female Genital Mutilation; forced marriage.

 

 

 

Appears to be afraid of partner or other person in intimate relationship / of making own choices, behaves as though she/he deserves to be hurt or mistreated, low self-esteem or appear to be withdrawn, appears unable or unwilling to leave perpetrator, makes excuses for or condones the behaviour of the person alleged to have caused harm, blames abuse on themselves

Spiritual Abuse

Inappropriate use of religious belief or practice

The misuse of the authority of leadership or penitential discipline, oppressive teaching or intrusive healing or deliverance ministries which may result in various types of harm.

Could be any of the above.

 

Some Additional Information:

Child Sexual Exploitation: All children and young people can be at risk of sexual exportation. This includes boys and girls of any age.  This is a form of sexual abuse. Whilst young people can give consent to sexual acts from the age of 16 (so long as they have the capacity to do so) they continue to be a risk of sexual exploitation beyond their 16th birthday. Any concern that a child or young person may be at risk of or experiencing sexual exploitation must be reported immediately to Children’s Social Care or the police. Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where young people (or a third person or persons) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. Child sexual exploitation can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post sexual images on the Internet/mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. In all cases, those exploiting the child/young person have power over them by virtue of their age, gender, intellect, physical strength and/or economic or other resources. Violence, coercion and intimidation are common, involvement in exploitative relationships being characterised in the main by the child or young person’s limited availability of choice resulting from their social/economic and/or emotional vulnerability. 

Female Genital Mutilation: Female genital mutilation (sometimes referred to as female circumcision) refers to procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is illegal in the UK. It has been estimated that over 20,000 girls under the age of 15 are at risk of female genital mutilation (FGM) in the UK each year, and that 66,000 women in the UK are living with the consequences of FGM. However, the true extent is unknown, due to the "hidden" nature of the crime. The girls may be taken to their countries of origin so that FGM can be carried out during the summer holidays, allowing them time to "heal" before they return to school. There are also worries that some girls may have FGM performed in the UK. Any concern that a child of adult who may be vulnerable may be at risk of FGM must be reported immediately to the relevant Local Authority or directly to police.

Terrorism and Extremism: Any person may become drawn into extremism or sympathy with such views and into terrorism. This will often happen through contacts made via the internet but a culture that supports this can develop in any community, group, school or faith organisation. The Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 places duties on certain bodies, not including Faith Organisations (excepting where such an organisation runs a school or other relevant premises) to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. Everybody should be alert to any indication that a person or group may be developing or has developed an interest or ideology that may include harm to others. Any concern related to this whether for a child or adult must be reported to the police without delay.